G.R. No. 175723, February 04, 2014 - THE CITY OF MANILA, REPRESENTED BY MAYOR JOSE L. ATIENZA, JR., AND MS. LIBERTY M. TOLEDO, IN HER CAPACITY AS THE CITY TREASURER OF MANILA, Petitioners, v. HON. CARIDAD H. GRECIA–CUERDO, IN HER CAPACITY AS PRESIDING JUDGE OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT, BRANCH 112, PASAY CITY; SM MART, INC.; SM PRIME HOLDINGS, INC.; STAR APPLIANCES CENTER; SUPERVALUE, INC.; ACE HARDWARE PHILIPPINES, INC.; WATSON PERSONAL CARE STORES, PHILS., INC.; JOLLIMART PHILS., CORP.; SURPLUS MARKETING CORPORATION AND SIGNATURE LINES, Respondents.
Before the Court is a special civil action for certiorari
under Rule 65 of the Rules of Court seeking to reverse and set aside the Resolutions1
dated April 6, 2006 and November 29, 2006 of the Court of Appeals (CA) in CA–G.R. SP No. 87948.
The antecedents of the case, as summarized by the CA, are as follows:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
The record shows that petitioner City of Manila, through its treasurer, petitioner Liberty Toledo, assessed taxes for the taxable period from January to December 2002 against private respondents SM Mart, Inc., SM Prime Holdings, Inc., Star Appliances Center, Supervalue, Inc., Ace Hardware Philippines, Inc., Watsons Personal Care Stores Phils., Inc., Jollimart Philippines Corp., Surplus Marketing Corp. and Signature Lines. In addition to the taxes purportedly due from private respondents pursuant to Section 14, 15, 16, 17 of the Revised Revenue Code of Manila (RRCM), said assessment covered the local business taxes petitioners were authorized to collect under Section 21 of the same Code. Because payment of the taxes assessed was a precondition for the issuance of their business permits, private respondents were constrained to pay the P 19,316,458.77 assessment under protest.
On January 24, 2004, private respondents filed [with the Regional Trial Court of Pasay City] the complaint denominated as one for “Refund or Recovery of Illegally and/or Erroneously–Collected Local Business Tax, Prohibition with Prayer to Issue TRO and Writ of Preliminary Injunction” which was docketed as Civil Case No. 04–0019–CFM before public respondent’s sala [at Branch 112]. In the amended complaint they filed on February 16, 2004, private respondents alleged that, in relation to Section 21 thereof, Sections 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 of the RRCM were violative of the limitations and guidelines under Section 143 (h) of Republic Act. No. 7160 [Local Government Code] on double taxation. They further averred that petitioner city’s Ordinance No. 8011 which amended pertinent portions of the RRCM had already been declared to be illegal and unconstitutional by the Department of Justice.2ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary
In its Order3
dated July 9, 2004, the RTC granted private respondents’ application for a writ of preliminary injunction.
Petitioners filed a Motion for Reconsideration4
but the RTC denied it in its Order5
dated October 15, 2004.
Petitioners then filed a special civil action for certiorari
with the CA assailing the July 9, 2004 and October 15, 2004 Orders of the RTC.6
In its Resolution promulgated on April 6, 2006, the CA dismissed petitioners’ petition for certiorari
holding that it has no jurisdiction over the said petition. The CA ruled that since appellate jurisdiction over private respondents’ complaint for tax refund, which was filed with the RTC, is vested in the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA), pursuant to its expanded jurisdiction under Republic Act No. 9282 (RA 9282), it follows that a petition for certiorari
seeking nullification of an interlocutory order issued in the said case should, likewise, be filed with the CTA.
Petitioners filed a Motion for Reconsideration,7
but the CA denied it in its Resolution dated November 29, 2006.
Hence, the present petition raising the following issues:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
I– Whether or not the Honorable Court of Appeals gravely erred in dismissing the case for lack of jurisdiction.
II– Whether or not the Honorable Regional Trial Court gravely abuse[d] its discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction in enjoining by issuing a Writ of Injunction the petitioners[,] their agents and/or authorized representatives from implementing Section 21 of the Revised Revenue Code of Manila, as amended, against private respondents.
III– Whether or not the Honorable Regional Trial Court gravely abuse[d] its discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction in issuing the Writ of Injunction despite failure of private respondents to make a written claim for tax credit or refund with the City Treasurer of Manila.
IV– Whether or not the Honorable Regional Trial Court gravely abuse[d] its discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction considering that under Section 21 of the Manila Revenue Code, as amended, they are mere collecting agents of the City Government.
V– Whether or not the Honorable Regional Trial Court gravely abuse[d] its discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction in issuing the Writ of Injunction because petitioner City of Manila and its constituents would result to greater damage and prejudice thereof. (sic)8ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary
Without first resolving the above issues, this Court finds that the instant petition should be denied for being moot and academic.
U pon perusal of the original records of the instant case, this Court discovered that a Decision9
in the main case had already been rendered by the RTC on August 13, 2007, the dispositive portion of which reads as follows:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
WHEREFORE, in view of the foregoing, this Court hereby renders JUDGMENT in favor of the plaintiff and against the defendant to grant a tax refund or credit for taxes paid pursuant to Section 21 of the Revenue Code of the City of Manila as amended for the year 2002 in the following amounts:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
Defendants are further enjoined from collecting taxes under Section 21, Revenue Code of Manila from herein plaintiff.
|To plaintiff SM Mart, Inc. || |
|To plaintiff SM Prime Holdings, Inc. || |
|To plaintiff Star Appliances Center || |
|To plaintiff Supervalue, Inc. || |
|To plaintiff Ace Hardware Phils., Inc. || |
|To plaintiff Watsons Personal Care Health Stores Phils., Inc. || |
|To plaintiff Jollimart Phils., Corp. || |
|To plaintiff Surplus Marketing Corp. || |
|To plaintiff Signature Mktg. Corp. || |
| || || || |
|TOTAL: || || |
The parties did not inform the Court but based on the records, the above Decision had already become final and executory per the Certificate of Finality11
issued by the same trial court on October 20, 2008. In fact, a Writ of Execution12
was issued by the RTC on November 25, 2009.
In view of the foregoing, it clearly appears that the issues raised in the present petition, which merely involve the incident on the preliminary injunction issued by the RTC, have already become moot and academic considering that the trial court, in its decision on the merits in the main case, has already ruled in favor of respondents and that the same decision is now final and executory. Well entrenched is the rule that where the issues have become moot and academic, there is no justiciable controversy, thereby rendering the resolution of the same of no practical use or value.13
In any case , the Court finds it necessary to resolve the issue on jurisdiction raised by petitioners owing to its significance and for future guidance of both bench and bar. It is a settled principle that courts will decide a question otherwise moot and academic if it is capable of repetition, yet evading review.14
However, before proceeding, to resolve the question on jurisdiction, the Court deems it proper to likewise address a procedural error which petitioners committed.
Petitioners availed of the wrong remedy when they filed the instant special civil action for certiorari
under Rule 65 of the Rules of Court in assailing the Resolutions of the CA which dismissed their petition filed with the said court and their motion for reconsideration of such dismissal. There is no dispute that the assailed Resolutions of the CA are in the nature of a final order as they disposed of the petition completely. It is settled that in cases where an assailed judgment or order is considered final, the remedy of the aggrieved party is appeal. Hence, in the instant case, petitioner should have filed a petition for review on certiorari
under Rule 45, which is a continuation of the appellate process over the original case.15
Petitioners should be reminded of the equally–settled rule that a special civil action for certiorari
under Rule 65 is an original or independent action based on grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction and it will lie only if there is no appeal or any other plain, speedy, and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law.16
As such, it cannot be a substitute for a lost appeal.17
Nonetheless, in accordance with the liberal spirit pervading the Rules of Court and in the interest of substantial justice, this Court has, before, treated a petition for certiorari
as a petition for review on certiorari
, particularly (1) if the petition for certiorari
was filed within the reglementary period within which to file a petition for review on certiorari
; (2) when errors of judgment are averred; and (3) when there is sufficient reason to justify the relaxation of the rules.18
Considering that the present petition was filed within the 15–day reglementary period for filing a petition for review on certiorari
under Rule 45, that an error of judgment is averred, and because of the significance of the issue on jurisdiction, the Court deems it proper and justified to relax the rules and, thus, treat the instant petition for certiorari
as a petition for review on certiorari
Having disposed of the procedural aspect, we now turn to the central issue in this case. The basic question posed before this Court is whether or not the CTA has jurisdiction over a special civil action for certiorari
assailing an interlocutory order issued by the RTC in a local tax case.
This Court rules in the affirmative.
On June 16, 1954, Congress enacted Republic Act No. 1125 (RA 1125) creating the CTA and giving to the said court jurisdiction over the following:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
(1) Decisions of the Collector of Internal Revenue in cases involving disputed assessments, refunds of internal revenue taxes, fees or other charges, penalties imposed in relation thereto, or other matters arising under the National Internal Revenue Code or other law or part of law administered by the Bureau of Internal Revenue;
(2) Decisions of the Commissioner of Customs in cases involving liability for customs duties, fees or other money charges; seizure, detention or release of property affected fines, forfeitures or other penalties imposed in relation thereto; or other matters arising under the Customs Law or other law or part of law administered by the Bureau of Customs; and
(3) Decisions of provincial or City Boards of Assessment Appeals in cases involving the assessment and taxation of real property or other matters arising under the Assessment Law, including rules and regulations relative thereto.
On March 30, 2004, the Legislature passed into law Republic Act No. 9282 (RA 9282) amending RA 1125 by expanding the jurisdiction of the CTA, enlarging its membership and elevating its rank to the level of a collegiate court with special jurisdiction. Pertinent portions of the amendatory act provides thus:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
Sec. 7. Jurisdiction. – The CTA shall exercise:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
a. Exclusive appellate jurisdiction to review by appeal, as herein provided:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
1. Decisions of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue in cases involving disputed assessments, refunds of internal revenue taxes, fees or other charges, penalties in relation thereto, or other matters arising under the National Internal Revenue or other laws administered by the Bureau of Internal Revenue;b. Jurisdiction over cases involving criminal offenses as herein provided:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
2. Inaction by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue in cases involving disputed assessments, refunds of internal revenue taxes, fees or other charges, penalties in relations thereto, or other matters arising under the National Internal Revenue Code or other laws administered by the Bureau of Internal Revenue, where the National Internal Revenue Code provides a specific period of action, in which case the inaction shall be deemed a denial;
3. Decisions, orders or resolutions of the Regional Trial Courts in local tax cases originally decided or resolved by them in the exercise of their original or appellate jurisdiction;
4. Decisions of the Commissioner of Customs in cases involving liability for customs duties, fees or other money charges, seizure, detention or release of property affected, fines, forfeitures or other penalties in relation thereto, or other matters arising under the Customs Law or other laws administered by the Bureau of Customs;
5. Decisions of the Central Board of Assessment Appeals in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction over cases involving the assessment and taxation of real property originally decided by the provincial or city board of assessment appeals;
6. Decisions of the Secretary of Finance on customs cases elevated to him automatically for review from decisions of the Commissioner of Customs which are adverse to the Government under Section 2315 of the Tariff and Customs Code;
7. Decisions of the Secretary of Trade and Industry, in the case of nonagricultural product, commodity or article, and the Secretary of Agriculture in the case of agricultural product, commodity or article, involving dumping and countervailing duties under Section 301 and 302, respectively, of the Tariff and Customs Code, and safeguard measures under Republic Act No. 8800, where either party may appeal the decision to impose or not to impose said duties.
1. Exclusive original jurisdiction over all criminal offenses arising from violations of the National Internal Revenue Code or Tariff and Customs Code and other laws administered by the Bureau of Internal Revenue or the Bureau of Customs: Provided, however, That offenses or felonies mentioned in this paragraph where the principal amount of taxes and fees, exclusive of charges and penalties, claimed is less than One million pesos ( P 1,000,000.00) or where there is no specified amount claimed shall be tried by the regular Courts and the jurisdiction of the CTA shall be appellate. Any provision of law or the Rules of Court to the contrary notwithstanding, the criminal action and the corresponding civil action for the recovery of civil liability for taxes and penalties shall at all times be simultaneously instituted with, and jointly determined in the same proceeding by the CTA, the filing of the criminal action being deemed to necessarily carry with it the filing of the civil action, and no right to reserve the filing of such civil action separately from the criminal action will be recognized.
2. Exclusive appellate jurisdiction in criminal offenses:
a. Over appeals from the judgments, resolutions or orders of the Regional Trial Courts in tax cases originally decided by them, in their respected territorial jurisdiction.
b. Over petitions for review of the judgments, resolutions or orders of the Regional Trial Courts in the exercise of their appellate jurisdiction over tax cases originally decided by the Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts in their respective jurisdiction.
c. Jurisdiction over tax collection cases as herein provided:
1. Exclusive original jurisdiction in tax collection cases involving final and executory assessments for taxes, fees, charges and penalties: Provides, however, that collection cases where the principal amount of taxes and fees, exclusive of charges and penalties, claimed is less than One million pesos ( P 1,000,000.00) shall be tried by the proper Municipal Trial Court, Metropolitan Trial Court and Regional Trial Court.
2. Exclusive appellate jurisdiction in tax collection cases:chanRoblesvirtualLawlibrary
a. Over appeals from the judgments, resolutions or orders of the Regional Trial Courts in tax collection cases originally decided by them, in their respective territorial jurisdiction.
b. Over petitions for review of the judgments, resolutions or orders of the Regional Trial Courts in the Exercise of their appellate jurisdiction over tax collection cases originally decided by the Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts, in their respective jurisdiction.19ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrary
A perusal of the above provisions would show that, while it is clearly stated that the CTA has exclusive appellate jurisdiction over decisions, orders or resolutions of the RTCs in local tax cases originally decided or resolved by them in the exercise of their original or appellate jurisdiction,there is no categorical statement under RA 1125 as well as the amendatory RA 9282, which provides that the CTA has jurisdiction over petitions for certiorari
assailing interlocutory orders issued by the RTC in local tax cases filed before it.
The prevailing doctrine is that the authority to issue writs of certiorari
involves the exercise of original jurisdiction which must be expressly conferred by the Constitution or by law and cannot be implied from the mere
existence of appellate jurisdiction.20
Thus, in the cases of Pimentel v. COMELEC
,21Garcia v. De Jesus
,22Veloria v. COMELEC
,23Department of Agrarian Reform Adjudication Board v. Lubrica
and Garcia v. Sandiganbayan
this Court has ruled against the jurisdiction of courts or tribunals over petitions for certiorari
on the ground that there is no law which expressly gives these tribunals such power.26
It must be observed, however, that with the exception of Garcia v. Sandiganbayan
these rulings pertain not to regular courts but to tribunals exercising quasi–judicial powers. With respect to the Sandiganbayan, Republic Act No. 824928
now provides that the special criminal court has exclusive original jurisdiction over petitions for the issuance of the writs of mandamus
, prohibition, certiorari
, injunctions, and other ancillary writs
and processes in aid of its appellate jurisdiction.
In the same manner, Section 5 (1), Article VIII of the 1987 Constitution grants power to the Supreme Court, in the exercise of its original jurisdiction, to issue writs of certiorari
, prohibition and mandamus
. With respect to the Court of Appeals, Section 9 (1) of Batas Pambansa Blg. 129 (BP 129) gives the appellate court, also in the exercise of its original jurisdiction, the power to issue, among others, a writ of certiorari
,whether or not in aid of its appellate jurisdiction. As to Regional Trial Courts, the power to issue a writ of certiorari
, in the exercise of their original jurisdiction, is provided under Section 21 of BP 129.
The foregoing notwithstanding, while there is no express grant of such power, with respect to the CTA, Section 1, Article VIII of the 1987 Constitution provides, nonetheless, that judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law and that judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government
On the strength of the above constitutional provisions, it can be fairly interpreted that the power of the CTA includes that of determining whether or not there has been grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of the RTC in issuing an interlocutory order in cases falling within the exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the tax court. It, thus, follows that the CTA, by constitutional mandate, is vested with jurisdiction to issue writs of certiorari
in these cases.
Indeed, in order for any appellate court to effectively exercise its appellate jurisdiction, it must have the authority to issue, among others, a writ of certiorari
. In transferring exclusive jurisdiction over appealed tax cases to the CTA, it can reasonably be assumed that the law intended to transfer also such power as is deemed necessary, if not indispensable, in aid of such appellate jurisdiction. There is no perceivable reason why the transfer should only be considered as partial, not total.
Consistent with the above pronouncement, this Court has held as early as the case of J.M. Tuason & Co., Inc. v. Jaramillo, et al
that “if a case may be appealed to a particular court or judicial tribunal or body, then said court or judicial tribunal or body has jurisdiction to issue the extraordinary writ of certiorari
, in aid of its appellate jurisdiction.”30
This principle was affirmed in De Jesus v. Court of Appeals
where the Court stated that “a court may issue a writ of certiorari
in aid of its appellate jurisdiction if said court has jurisdiction to review, by appeal or writ of error, the final orders or decisions of the lower court.”32
The rulings in J.M. Tuason
and De Jesus
were reiterated in the more recent cases of Galang, Jr. v. Geronimo33
and Bulilis v. Nuez
Furthermore, Section 6, Rule 135 of the present Rules of Court provides that when by law, jurisdiction is conferred on a court or judicial officer, all auxiliary writs, processes and other means necessary to carry it into effect may be employed by such court or officer.
If this Court were to sustain petitioners’ contention that jurisdiction over their certiorari
petition lies with the CA, this Court would be confirming the exercise by two judicial bodies, the CA and the CTA, of jurisdiction over basically the same subject matter – precisely the split–jurisdiction situation which is anathema to the orderly administration of justice.35
The Court cannot accept that such was the legislative motive, especially considering that the law expressly confers on the CTA, the tribunal with the specialized competence over tax and tariff matters, the role of judicial review over local tax cases without mention of any other court that may exercise such power. Thus, the Court agrees with the ruling of the CA that since appellate jurisdiction over private respondents’ complaint for tax refund is vested in the CTA, it follows that a petition for certiorari
seeking nullification of an interlocutory order issued in the said case should, likewise, be filed with the same court. To rule otherwise would lead to an absurd situation where one court decides an appeal in the main case while another court rules on an incident in the very same case.
Stated differently, it would be somewhat incongruent with the pronounced judicial abhorrence to split jurisdiction to conclude that the intention of the law is to divide the authority over a local tax case filed with the RTC by giving to the CA or this Court jurisdiction to issue a writ of certiorari
against interlocutory orders of the RTC but giving to the CTA the jurisdiction over the appeal from the decision of the trial court in the same case. It is more in consonance with logic and legal soundness to conclude that the grant of appellate jurisdiction to the CTA over tax cases filed in and decided by the RTC carries with it the power to issue a writ of certiorari
when necessary in aid of such appellate jurisdiction. The supervisory power or jurisdiction of the CTA to issue a writ of certiorari
in aid of its appellate jurisdiction should co–exist with, and be a complement to, its appellate jurisdiction to review, by appeal, the final orders and decisions of the RTC, in order to have complete supervision over the acts of the latter.36
A grant of appellate jurisdiction implies that there is included in it the power necessary to exercise it effectively, to make all orders that will preserve the subject of the action, and to give effect to the final determination of the appeal. It carries with it the power to protect that jurisdiction and to make the decisions of the court thereunder effective. The court, in aid of its appellate jurisdiction, has authority to control all auxiliary and incidental matters necessary to the efficient and proper exercise of that jurisdiction. For this purpose, it may, when necessary, prohibit or restrain the performance of any act which might interfere with the proper exercise of its rightful jurisdiction in cases pending before it.37
Lastly, it would not be amiss to point out that a court which is endowed with a particular jurisdiction should have powers which are necessary to enable it to act effectively within such jurisdiction. These should be regarded as powers which are inherent in its jurisdiction and the court must possess them in order to enforce its rules of practice and to suppress any abuses of its process and to defeat any attempted thwarting of such process.
In this regard, Section 1 of RA 9282 states that the CTA shall be of the same level as the CA and shall possess all the inherent powers of a court of justice.
Indeed, courts possess certain inherent powers which may be said to be implied from a general grant of jurisdiction, in addition to those expressly conferred on them. These inherent powers are such powers as are necessary for the ordinary and efficient exercise of jurisdiction; or are essential to the existence, dignity and functions of the courts, as well as to the due administration of justice; or are directly appropriate, convenient and suitable to the execution of their granted powers; and include the power to maintain the court’s jurisdiction and render it effective in behalf of the litigants.38
Thus, this Court has held that “while a court may be expressly granted the incidental powers necessary to effectuate its jurisdiction, a grant of jurisdiction, in the absence of prohibitive legislation, implies the necessary and usual incidental powers essential to effectuate it, and, subject to existing laws and constitutional provisions, every regularly constituted court has power to do all things that are reasonably necessary for the administration of justice within the scope of its jurisdiction and for the enforcement of its judgments and mandates.”39
Hence, demands, matters or questions ancillary or incidental to, or growing out of, the main action, and coming within the above principles, may be taken cognizance of by the court and determined, since such jurisdiction is in aid of its authority over the principal matter, even though the court may thus be called on to consider and decide matters which, as original causes of action, would not be within its cognizance.40
Based on the foregoing disquisitions, it can be reasonably concluded that the authority of the CTA to take cognizance of petitions for certiorari
questioning interlocutory orders issued by the RTC in a local tax case is included in the powers granted by the Constitution as well as inherent in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction.
Finally, it would bear to point out that this Court is not abandoning the rule that, insofar as quasi–judicial tribunals are concerned, the authority to issue writs of certiorari
must still be expressly conferred by the Constitution or by law and cannot be implied from the mere existence of their appellate jurisdiction. This doctrine remains as it applies only to quasi–judicial bodies.WHEREFORE
, the petition is DENIED
.ChanRoblesVirtualawlibrarySO ORDERED.Sereno, C.J., Carpio, Velasco, Jr., Leonardo–De Castro, Brion, Bersamin, Abad, Villarama, Jr., Perez, Mendoza, Reyes, Perlas–Bernabe, and Leonen, JJ., concur.
Del Castillo, J., no part.
1 Penned by Associate Justice Rebecca de Guia–Salvador, with Associate Justices Ruben T. Reyes (now a retired member of this Court) and Aurora Santiago–Lagman, concurring; Annexes “A” and “B,” rollo, pp. 43–48; 49–51.
2Rollo, p. 44. (Italics and emphasis in the original; citations omitted)
3 Records, vol. II, pp. 476–480.
4Id. at 481–490.
5Id. at 513.
6 CA rollo, pp. 2–31.
7Id. at 321–326.
8Rollo, p. 20. (Emphasis in the original)
9 Records, vol. II, pp. 761–762.
10Id. at 762. (Emphasis in the original)
11Id. at 822.
12Id. at 837.
13Garcia v. COMELEC, 328 Phil. 288, 292 (1996).
14Caneland Sugar Corporation v. Alon, G.R. No. 142896, September 12, 2007, 533 SCRA 28, 33.
15Republic of the Philippines, represented by Abusama M. Alid, Officer–in–Charge, Department of Agriculture–Regional Field Unit XII (DA–RFU–XII) v. Abdulwahab A. Bayao, et al., G.R. No. 179492, June 5, 2013.
16Mendez v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 174937, June 13, 2012, 672 SCRA 200, 207.
18Tagle v. Equitable PCI Bank, G.R. No. 172299, April 22, 2008, 552 SCRA 424, 444, citing Oaminal v. Castillo, 459 Phil. 542, 556 (2003); Republic v. Court of Appeals, 379 Phil. 92, 98 (2000); Delsan Transport Lines, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 335 Phil. 1066, 1075 (1997); Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank v. Court of Appeals, 389 Phil. 644, 655 (2000).
20Department of Agrarian Reform Adjudication Board v. Lubrica, 497 Phil. 313, 322 (2005); Veloria v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 94771, July 29, 1992, 211 SCRA 907, 915.
21 189 Phil. 581 (1980).
22 G.R. Nos. 88158 and 97108–09, March 4, 1992, 206 SCRA 779.
23Supra note 20.
24Supra note 20.
25 G.R. No. 114135, October 7, 1994, 237 SCRA 552.
26Department of Agrarian Reform Adjudication Board v. Lubrica, supra note 20; Veloria v. COMELEC, supra note 20; Garcia v. Sandiganbayan, id. at 563–564; Garcia v. De Jesus, supra note 22, at 787–788; Pimentel v. COMELEC, supra note 21, at 587.
27Supra note 25.
28 An Act Further Defining the Jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan, Amending for the Purpose Presidential Decree No. 1606, As Amended, Providing Funds Therefor, And for Other Purposes.
29 118 Phil. 1022 (1963).
30J. M. Tuason & Co., Inc. v. Jaramillo, et al., supra, at 1026.
31 G.R. No. 101630, August 24, 1992, 212 SCRA 823.
32De Jesus v. Court of Appeals, supra, at 827–828.
33 G.R. No. 192793, February 22, 2011, 643 SCRA 631, 635–636.
34 G.R. No. 195953, August 9, 2011, 655 SCRA 241, 246–247.
35Southern Cross Cement Corporation v. Philippine Cement Manufacturers Corp., 478 Phil. 85, 125 (2004).
36Breslin v. Luzon Stevedoring Company, 84 Phil. 618, 623 (1949).
37 4 Am Jur 2d, Appeal and Error, §5, p. 536; 2 Am Jur, Appeal and Error, §9, 850.
38Santiago v. Vasquez, G.R. Nos. 99289–90, January 27, 1993, 217 SCRA 633, 648.
39Treasurer–Assessor v. University of the Philippines, 148 Phil. 526, 539 (1971); Amalgamated Laborers’ Association v. Court of Industrial Relations, 131 Phil. 374, 380 (1968); Philippine Airlines Employees’ Association v. Philippine Airlines, Inc., 120 Phil. 383, 390 (1964). (Citations omitted).