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G.R. No. 174912, July 24, 2013





Before the Court is a petition for review on certiorari under Rule 45 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure, assailing the April 5, 2006 Decision1 and August 17, 2006 Resolution2 of the Court of Appeals (CA) in CA-G.R. SP No. 74595 affirming the December 21, 20013 and August 23, 20024 Resolutions of the National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC) in declaring as valid and legal the action of respondent Bank of the Philippine Islands-Davao City (BPI-Davao) in contracting out certain functions to BPI Operations Management Corporation (BOMC).

The Factual Antecedents

BOMC, which was created pursuant to Central Bank5 Circular No. 1388, Series of 1993 (CBP Circular No. 1388, 1993), and primarily engaged in providing and/or handling support services for banks and other financial institutions, is a subsidiary of the Bank of Philippine Islands (BPI) operating and functioning as an entirely separate and distinct entity.

A service agreement between BPI and BOMC was initially implemented in BPI’s Metro Manila branches.  In this agreement, BOMC undertook to provide services such as check clearing, delivery of bank statements, fund transfers, card production, operations accounting and control, and cash servicing, conformably with BSP Circular No. 1388.  Not a single BPI employee was displaced and those performing the functions, which were transferred to BOMC, were given other assignments.

The Manila chapter of BPI Employees Union (BPIEU-Metro Manila-FUBU) then filed a complaint for unfair labor practice (ULP). The Labor Arbiter (LA) decided the case in favor of the union. The decision was, however, reversed on appeal by the NLRC. BPIEU-Metro Manila-FUBU filed a petition for certiorari before the CA which denied it, holding that BPI transferred the employees in the affected departments in the pursuit of its legitimate business. The employees were neither demoted nor were their salaries, benefits and other privileges diminished.6

On January 1, 1996, the service agreement was likewise implemented in Davao City. Later, a merger between BPI and Far East Bank and Trust Company (FEBTC) took effect on April 10, 2000 with BPI as the surviving corporation. Thereafter, BPI’s cashiering function and FEBTC’s cashiering, distribution and bookkeeping functions were handled by BOMC. Consequently, twelve (12) former FEBTC employees were transferred to BOMC to complete the latter’s service complement.

BPI Davao’s rank and file collective bargaining agent, BPI Employees Union-Davao City-FUBU (Union), objected to the transfer of the functions and the twelve (12) personnel to BOMC contending that the functions rightfully belonged to the BPI employees and that the Union was deprived of membership of former FEBTC personnel who, by virtue of the merger, would have formed part of the bargaining unit represented by the Union pursuant to its union shop provision in the CBA.7

The Union then filed a formal protest on June 14, 2000 addressed to BPI Vice Presidents Claro M. Reyes and Cecil Conanan reiterating its objection. It requested the BPI management to submit the BOMC issue to the grievance procedure under the CBA, but BPI did not consider it as “grievable.” Instead, BPI proposed a Labor Management Conference (LMC) between the parties.8

During the LMC, BPI invoked management prerogative stating that the creation of the BOMC was to preserve more jobs and to designate it as an agency to place employees where they were most needed. On the other hand, the Union charged that BOMC undermined the existence of the union since it reduced or divided the bargaining unit. While BOMC employees perform BPI functions, they were beyond the bargaining unit’s coverage. In contracting out FEBTC functions to BOMC, BPI effectively deprived the union of the membership of employees handling said functions as well as curtailed the right of those employees to join the union.

Thereafter, the Union demanded that the matter be submitted to the grievance machinery as the resort to the LMC was unsuccessful. As BPI allegedly ignored the demand, the Union filed a notice of strike before the National Conciliation and Mediation Board (NCMB) on the following grounds:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

Contracting out services/functions performed by union members that interfered with, restrained and/or coerced the employees in the exercise of their right to self-organization;
Violation of duty to bargain; and
Union busting.9

BPI then filed a petition for assumption of jurisdiction/certification with the Secretary of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), who subsequently issued an order certifying the labor dispute to the NLRC for compulsory arbitration. The DOLE Secretary directed the parties to cease and desist from committing any act that might exacerbate the situation.

On October 27, 2000, a hearing was conducted. Thereafter, the parties were required to submit their respective position papers. On November 29, 2000, the Union filed its Urgent Omnibus Motion to Cease and Desist with a prayer that BPI-Davao and/or Mr. Claro M. Reyes and Mr. Cecil Conanan be held in contempt for the following alleged acts of BPI:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

  1. The Bank created a Task Force Committee on November 20, 2000 composed of six (6) former FEBTC employees to handle the Cashiering, Distributing, Clearing, Tellering and Accounting functions of the former FEBTC branches but the “task force” conducts its business at the office of the BOMC using the latter’s equipment and facilities.

  2. On November 27, 2000, the bank integrated the clearing operations of the BPI and the FEBTC. The clearing function of BPI, then solely handled by the BPI Processing Center prior to the labor dispute, is now encroached upon by the BOMC because with the merger, differences between BPI and FEBTC operations were diminished or deleted. What the bank did was simply to get the total of all clearing transactions under BPI but the BOMC employees process the clearing of checks at the Clearing House as to checks coming from former FEBTC branches. Prior to the labor dispute, the run-up and distribution of the checks of BPI were returned to the BPI processing center, now all checks whether of BPI or of FEBTC were brought to the BOMC.  Since the clearing operations were previously done by the BPI processing center with BPI employees, said function should be performed by BPI employees and not by BOMC.10

On December 21, 2001, the NLRC came out with a resolution upholding the validity of the service agreement between BPI and BOMC and dismissing the charge of ULP. It ruled that the engagement by BPI of BOMC to undertake some of its activities was clearly a valid exercise of its management prerogative.11 It further stated that the spinning off by BPI to BOMC of certain services and functions did not interfere with, restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self-organization.12 The Union did not present even an iota of evidence showing that BPI had terminated employees, who were its members. In fact, BPI exerted utmost diligence, care and effort to see to it that no union member was terminated.13  The NLRC also stressed that Department Order (D.O.) No. 10 series of 1997, strongly relied upon by the Union, did not apply in this case as BSP Circular No. 1388, series of 1993, was the applicable rule.

After the denial of its motion for reconsideration, the Union elevated its grievance to the CA via a petition for certiorari under Rule 65. The CA, however, affirmed the NLRC’s December 21, 2001 Resolution with modification that the enumeration of functions listed under BSP Circular No. 1388 in the said resolution be deleted. The CA noted at the outset that the petition must be dismissed as it merely touched on factual matters which were beyond the ambit of the remedy availed of.14 Be that as it may, the CA found that the factual findings of the NLRC were supported by substantial evidence and, thus, entitled to great respect and finality. To the CA, the NLRC did not act with grave abuse of discretion as to merit the reversal of the resolution.15

Furthermore, the CA ratiocinated that, considering the ramifications of the corporate merger, it was well within BPI’s prerogatives “to determine what additional tasks should be performed, who should best perform it and what should be done to meet the exigencies of business.”16 It pointed out that the Union did not, by the mere fact of the merger, become the bargaining agent of the merged employees17 as the Union’s right to represent said employees did not arise until it was chosen by them.18

As to the applicability of D.O. No. 10, the CA agreed with the NLRC that the said order did not apply as BPI, being a commercial bank, its transactions were subject to the rules and regulations of the BSP.

Not satisfied, the Union filed a motion for reconsideration which was, however, denied by the CA.

Hence, the present petition with the following




The Union is of the position that the outsourcing of jobs included in the existing bargaining unit to BOMC is a breach of the union-shop agreement in the CBA. In transferring the former employees of FEBTC to BOMC instead of absorbing them in BPI as the surviving corporation in the merger, the number of positions covered by the bargaining unit was decreased, resulting in the reduction of the Union’s membership.  For the Union, BPI’s act of arbitrarily outsourcing functions formerly performed by the Union members and, in fact, transferring a number of its members beyond the ambit of the Union, is a violation of the CBA and interfered with the employees’ right to self organization. The Union insists that the CBA covers the agreement with respect, not only to wages and hours of work, but to all other terms and conditions of work. The union shop clause, being part of these conditions, states that the regular employees belonging to the bargaining unit, including those absorbed by way of the corporate merger, were required to join the bargaining union “as a condition for employment.” Simply put, the transfer of former FEBTC employees to BOMC removed them from the coverage of unionized establishment. While the Union admitted that BPI has the prerogative to determine what should be done to meet the exigencies of business in accordance with the case of Sime Darby Pilipinas, Inc. v. NLRC,19 it insisted that the exercise of management prerogative is not absolute, thus, requiring good faith and adherence to the law and the CBA. Citing the case of Shell Oil Workers’ Union v. Shell Company of the Philippines, Ltd.,20 the Union claims that it is unfair labor practice for an employer to outsource the positions in the existing bargaining unit.

Position of BPI-Davao

For its part, BPI defended the validity of its service agreement with BOMC on three (3) grounds: 1] that it was pursuant to the prevailing law at that time, CBP Circular No. 1388; 2] that the creation of BOMC was within management prerogatives intended to streamline the operations and provide focus for BPI’s core activities; and 3] that the Union recognized, in its CBA, the exclusive right and prerogative of BPI to conduct the management and operation of its business.21

BPI argues that the case of Shell Oil Workers’ Union v. Shell Company of the Philippines, Ltd.,22 cited by the Union, is not on all fours with the present case. In said case, the company dissolved its security guard section and replaced it with an outside agency, claiming that such act was a valid exercise of management prerogative.  The Court, however, ruled against the said outsourcing because there was an express assurance in the CBA that the security guard section would continue to exist.  Having failed to reserve its right to effect a dissolution, the company’s act of outsourcing and transferring security guards was invalidated by the Court, ruling that the unfair labor practice strike called by the Union did have the impression of validity.  In contrast, there is no provision in the CBA between BPI and the Union expressly stipulating the continued existence of any position within the bargaining unit. For BPI, the absence of this peculiar fact is enough reason to prevent the application of Shell to this case.

BPI likewise invokes settled jurisprudence,23 where the Court upheld the acts of management to contract out certain functions held by employees, and even notably those held by union members.  In these cases, the decision to outsource certain functions was a justifiable business judgment which deserved no judicial interference. The only requisite of this act is good faith on the part of the employer and the absence of malicious and arbitrary action in the outsourcing of functions to BOMC.

On the issue of the alleged curtailment of the right of the employees to self-organization, BPI refutes the Union’s allegation that ULP was committed when the number of positions in the bargaining was reduced. It cites as correct the CA ruling that the representation of the Union’s prospective members is contingent on the choice of the employee, that is, whether or not to join the Union. Hence, it was premature for the Union to claim that the rights of its prospective members to self-organize were restrained by the transfer of the former FEBTC employees to BOMC.

The Court’s Ruling

In essence, the primordial issue in this case is whether or not the act of BPI to outsource the cashiering, distribution and bookkeeping functions to BOMC is in conformity with the law and the existing CBA. Particularly in dispute is the validity of the transfer of twelve (12) former FEBTC employees to BOMC, instead of being absorbed in BPI after the corporate merger. The Union claims that a union shop agreement is stipulated in the existing CBA. It is unfair labor practice for employer to outsource the positions in the existing bargaining unit, citing the case of Shell Oil Workers’ Union v. Shell Company of the Philippines, Ltd.24

The Union’s reliance on the Shell Case is misplaced. The rule now is covered by Article 261 of the Labor Code, which took effect on November 1, 1974.25 Article 261 provides:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

ART. 261. Jurisdiction of Voluntary Arbitrators or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. – x x x Accordingly, violations of a Collective Bargaining Agreement, except those which are gross in character, shall no longer be treated as unfair labor practice and shall be resolved as grievances under the Collective Bargaining Agreement. For purposes of this article, gross violations of Collective Bargaining Agreement shall mean flagrant and/or malicious refusal to comply with the economic provisions of such agreement. [Emphases supplied]

Clearly, only gross violations of the economic provisions of the CBA are treated as ULP.  Otherwise, they are mere grievances.

In the present case, the alleged violation of the union shop agreement in the CBA, even assuming it was malicious and flagrant, is not a violation of an economic provision in the agreement. The provisions relied upon by the Union were those articles referring to the recognition of the union as the sole and exclusive bargaining representative of all rank-and-file employees, as well as the articles on union security, specifically, the maintenance of membership in good standing as a condition for continued employment and the union shop clause.26 It failed to take into consideration its recognition of the bank’s exclusive rights and prerogatives, likewise provided in the CBA, which included the hiring of employees, promotion, transfers, and dismissals for just cause and the maintenance of order, discipline and efficiency in its operations.27

The Union, however, insists that jobs being outsourced to BOMC were included in the existing bargaining unit, thus, resulting in a reduction of a number of positions in such unit. The reduction interfered with the employees’ right to self-organization because the power of a union primarily depends on its strength in number.28

It is incomprehensible how the “reduction of positions in the collective bargaining unit” interferes with the employees’ right to self-organization because the employees themselves were neither transferred nor dismissed from the service. As the NLRC clearly stated:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

In the case at hand, the union has not presented even an iota of evidence that petitioner bank has started to terminate certain employees, members of the union. In fact, what appears is that the Bank has exerted utmost diligence, care and effort to see to it that no union member has been terminated. In the process of the consolidation or merger of the two banks which resulted in increased diversification of functions, some of these non-banking functions were merely transferred to the BOMC without affecting the union membership.29

BPI stresses that not a single employee or union member was or would be dislocated or terminated from their employment as a result of the Service Agreement.30  Neither had it resulted in any diminution of salaries and benefits nor led to any reduction of union membership.31

As far as the twelve (12) former FEBTC employees are concerned, the Union failed to substantially prove that their transfer, made to complete BOMC’s service complement, was motivated by ill will, anti-unionism or bad faith so as to affect or interfere with the employees’ right to self-organization.

It is to be emphasized that contracting out of services is not illegal per se. It is an exercise of business judgment or management prerogative. Absent proof that the management acted in a malicious or arbitrary manner, the Court will not interfere with the exercise of judgment by an employer.32 In this case, bad faith cannot be attributed to BPI because its actions were authorized by CBP Circular No. 1388, Series of 199333 issued by the Monetary Board of the then Central Bank of the Philippines (now Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas). The circular covered amendments in Book I of the Manual of Regulations for Banks and Other Financial Intermediaries, particularly on the matter of bank service contracts.  A finding of ULP necessarily requires the alleging party to prove it with substantial evidence. Unfortunately, the Union failed to discharge this burden.

Much has been said about the applicability of D.O. No. 10. Both the NLRC and the CA agreed with BPI that the said order does not apply.  With BPI, as a commercial bank, its transactions are subject to the rules and regulations of the governing agency which is the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.34 The Union insists that D.O. No. 10 should prevail.

The Court is of the view, however, that there is no conflict between D.O. No. 10 and CBP Circular No. 1388.  In fact, they complement each other.

Consistent with the maxim, interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus, a statute should be construed not only to be consistent with itself but also to harmonize with other laws on the same subject matter, as to form a complete, coherent and intelligible system of jurisprudence.35 The seemingly conflicting provisions of a law or of two laws must be harmonized to render each effective.36 It is only when harmonization is impossible that resort must be made to choosing which law to apply.37

In the case at bench, the Union submits that while the Central Bank regulates banking, the Labor Code and its implementing rules regulate the employment relationship. To this, the Court agrees. The fact that banks are of a specialized industry must, however, be taken into account. The competence in determining which banking functions may or may not be outsourced lies with the BSP. This does not mean that banks can simply outsource banking functions allowed by the BSP through its circulars, without giving regard to the guidelines set forth under D.O. No. 10 issued by the DOLE.

While D.O. No. 10, Series of 1997, enumerates the permissible contracting or subcontracting activities, it is to be observed that, particularly in Sec. 6(d) invoked by the Union, the provision is general in character – “x x x Works or services not directly related or not integral to the main business or operation of the principal… x x x.” This does not limit or prohibit the appropriate government agency, such as the BSP, to issue rules, regulations or circulars to further and specifically determine the permissible services to be contracted out. CBP Circular No. 138838 enumerated functions which are ancillary to the business of banks, hence, allowed to be outsourced. Thus, sanctioned by said circular, BPI outsourced the cashiering (i.e., cash-delivery and deposit pick-up) and accounting requirements of its Davao City branches.39 The Union even described the extent of BPI’s actual and intended contracting out to BOMC as follows:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

“As an initiatory move, the functions of the Cashiering Unit of the Processing Center of BPI, handled by its regular rank and file employees who are members of the Union, xxx [were] transferred to BOMC with the Accounting Department as next in line. The Distributing, Clearing and Bookkeeping functions of the Processing Center of the former FEBTC were likewise contracted out to BOMC.”40

Thus, the subject functions appear to be not in any way directly related to the core activities of banks. They are functions in a processing center of BPI which does not handle or manage deposit transactions. Clearly, the functions outsourced are not inherent banking functions, and, thus, are well within the permissible services under the circular.

The Court agrees with BPI that D.O. No. 10 is but a guide to determine what functions may be contracted out, subject to the rules and established jurisprudence on legitimate job contracting and prohibited labor-only contracting.41 Even if the Court considers D.O. No. 10 only, BPI would still be within the bounds of D.O. No. 10 when it contracted out the subject functions.  This is because the subject functions were not related or not integral to the main business or operation of the principal which is the lending of funds obtained in the form of deposits.42 From the very definition of “banks” as provided under the General Banking Law, it can easily be discerned that banks perform only two (2) main or basic functions – deposit and loan functions. Thus, cashiering, distribution and bookkeeping are but ancillary functions whose outsourcing is sanctioned under CBP Circular No. 1388 as well as D.O. No. 10.  Even BPI itself recognizes that deposit and loan functions cannot be legally contracted out as they are directly related or integral to the main business or operation of banks.  The CBP’s Manual of Regulations has even categorically stated and emphasized on the prohibition against outsourcing inherent banking functions, which refer to any contract between the bank and a service provider for the latter to supply, or any act whereby the latter supplies, the manpower to service the deposit transactions of the former.43

In one case, the Court held that it is management prerogative to farm out any of its activities, regardless of whether such activity is peripheral or core in nature.44 What is of primordial importance is that the service agreement does not violate the employee’s right to security of tenure and payment of benefits to which he is entitled under the law. Furthermore, the outsourcing must not squarely fall under labor-only contracting where the contractor or sub-contractor merely recruits, supplies or places workers to perform a job, work or service for a principal or if any of the following elements are present:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

i) The contractor or subcontractor does not have substantial capital or investment which relates to the job, work or service to be performed and the employees recruited, supplied or placed by such contractor or subcontractor are performing activities which are directly related to the main business of the principal; or

ii) The contractor does not exercise the right to control over the performance of the work of the contractual employee.45

WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED.


Velasco, Jr., (Chairperson), Peralta, Abad, and Leonen, JJ., concur.

July 29, 2013



Please take notice that on July 24, 2013 a Decision, copy attached herewith, was rendered by the Supreme Court in the above-entitled case, the original of which was received by this Office on July 29, 2013 at 1:45 p.m.

Very truly yours,
Division Clerk of Court


1 Penned by Associate Justice Rodrigo F. Lim, Jr., with Associate Justices Teresita Dy-Liacco Flores and Ramon R. Garcia, concurring; rollo, pp. 84-103.cralawlibrary

2 Id. at 105-107.cralawlibrary

3 Id. at 53-79.cralawlibrary

4 Id. at 81-82.cralawlibrary

5 Now Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP).cralawlibrary

6Rollo, p. 181.cralawlibrary

7 Id. at 87-88.cralawlibrary

8 Id. at 88.cralawlibrary

9 Id. at 90.cralawlibrary

10 Id. at 91.cralawlibrary

11 Id. at 93.cralawlibrary

12 Id. at 92.cralawlibrary

13 Id. at 93.cralawlibrary

14 Id. at 96.cralawlibrary

15 Id. at 97.cralawlibrary

16 Id. at 98.cralawlibrary

17 Id. at 99.cralawlibrary

18 Id.cralawlibrary

19 351 Phil. 1013 (1998).cralawlibrary

20 148-A Phil. 229 (1971).cralawlibrary

21 Section 1, Article IV. Exclusive Rights and Prerogatives – The UNION all all its members hereby recognize that the management and operation of the business of the BANK which include, among others, the hiring of employees, promotion, transfers, and dismissal for just cause as well as the maintenance of order, discipline and efficiency in its operation are the sole and exclusive prerogative of the BANK..cralawlibrary

22  Supra note 20.cralawlibrary

23 Cecille de Ocampo v. NLRC, G.R. No. 101539, September 4, 1992, 213 SCRA 652; Asian Alcohol Corporation v. NLRC, 364 Phil. 912 (1999). G.R. No. 131108, March 25, 1999, Manila Electric Company v. Quisumbing, 383 Phil. 47 (2000).cralawlibrary

24 Supra note 20.cralawlibrary

25Bustamante v. NLRC, 332 Phil. 833, 839 (1996).cralawlibrary

26Rollo, p. 57.cralawlibrary

27 Id. at 125.cralawlibrary

28 Id. at 37.cralawlibrary

29 Id. at 72-73.cralawlibrary

30 Id. at 125-126.cralawlibrary

31 Id.cralawlibrary

32Manila Electric Company v. Secretary Quisumbing, 383 Phil. 47, 60 (2000).cralawlibrary


Series of 1993

The Monetary Board, in its Resolution No. 231 dated March 19, 1993, approved the following amendments to Book I of the Manual of Regulations for Banks and Other Financial Intermediaries:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

SECTION 1. The following new section is hereby added after Section 1176 of the Manual:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

SECTION 1177. Bank Service Contract. — A bank with expanded commercial banking authority or a commercial bank may engage a bank service bureau or corporation to perform the following services:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

(a) data processing systems development and maintenance;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
(b) deposit and withdrawal recording;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
(c) computation and recording of interests, service charges, penalties, and other fees;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
(d) check-clearing processing, such as the transmission and receipt of check-clearing items/tapes to and from the Central Bank (CB), collection and delivery of checks not included in the Philippine Clearing House System, as well as the recording of the same;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary
(e) printing and delivery of bank statements; and
(f) providing general support services, such as purchasing of bank forms, equipment and supplies; messengerial, janitorial and services; necessary budget and expense accounting, and other similar services.

Banks may enter into contracts covering above-mentioned services, provided that:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

1. The performance by the Service Bureau of aforesaid bank services pertinent to deposit operations will not in any way violate laws on secrecy of bank deposits;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary

2. There will be no diminution of Central Bank's supervisory and examining authority over banks, nor in any manner impede CB's exercise thereof;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary

3. The administrative powers of CB over the bank, its directors and officers shall not be impaired by such transfer of activities;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary

4. The bank remains responsible for the performance of subject activities in the same manner and to the same extent as it was before the transfer of said services to the Bureau;chanroblesvirtualawlibrary

5. The Service Bureau shall be owned exclusively by banks and shall render services to banks; and

6. The bank shall continue to comply with all laws and regulations, covering the activities performed by the Service Bureau for and in its behalf such as, but may not be limited to, keeping of records and preparation of reports, signing authorities, internal control, and clearing regulations."

SECTION 2. Section 1379(a) is hereby amended by adding a paragraph after item (10), as follows:cralavvonlinelawlibrary

"(11) Bank service corporations all of the capital of which is owned by one or more banks and organized to perform for and in behalf of banks the services enumerated in Section 1177."

This Circular shall take effect immediately.


34Rollo, pp. 100-101.cralawlibrary

35Dreamwork Construction, Inc. v. Janiola, G.R. No. 184861, June 30, 2009, 591 SCRA 466, 474; CSC v. CA, G.R. No. 176162, October 9, 2012, sc.judiciary.gov.ph/jurisprudence/2012/october2012/176162.pdf, (last visited June 17, 2013).cralawlibrary

36 Remo v. The Honorable Secretary of Foregin Affairs, G.R. No. 169202, March 5, 2010, 614 SCRA 281, 290.cralawlibrary

37 Dreamwork Construction, Inc. v. Janiola, supra note 35 at 475.cralawlibrary

38 See Note 33.cralawlibrary

39Rollo, p. 181-182.cralawlibrary

40Rollo, p. 219.cralawlibrary

41Rollo, p. 201.cralawlibrary

42 Sec. 3.1., Chapter I, R.A. No. 8191, The General Banking Law of 2000; First Planters Pawnshop, Inc. v. CIR, G.R. No. 174134, July 30, 2008, 560 SCRA 606, 619; Galvez v. CA, G.R. No. 187919, April 25, 2012, 671 SCRA 223, 238.cralawlibrary

43 §X162.1 (2008 – X169.1), Manual of Regulations for Banks.cralawlibrary

44Alviado  v. Procter & Gamble Phils., Inc., G.R. No. 160506, March 9, 2010, 614 SCRA 563, 577.cralawlibrary

45 Id.; Art. 106, Labor Code of the Philippines.
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